Climate Variability and Change Analysis Datasets

Each of the available datasets has been used in studies that have been published in peer-reviewed journals. We request that data users reference the relevant articles. Thank you.

Datasets available via data centers and journals:

Climate Variability and Change Analysis Publications

To obtain reprints of any of these articles, please contact the first author.


  • Bodeker, G. E., S. Bojinski, D. Cimini, R. J. Dirksesen, M. Haeffelin, J. W. Hannigan, D. F. Hurst, T. Leblanc, F. Madonna, M. Maturilli, A. C. Mikalsesen, R. Philipona, T. Reale, D. J. Seidel, D. G. H. Tan, P. W. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang (2016): Reference Upper-Air Observations for Climate- From Concept to Reality, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 97, 123–135. doi: Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J., J. Li, C. Mears, I. Moradi, J. Nash, W. J. Randel, R. Saunders, D. W. J. Thompson, and C.-Z. Zou (2016): Stratospheric temperature changes during the satellite era, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, doi:10.1002/2015JD024039. Reprint


  • Butler, A. H. D. J. Seidel, S. C. Hardiman, N. Butchart, T. Birner, and A. Match, 2015: Defining sudden stratospheric warmings, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 96 (11),1913–1928, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00173.1. Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J. and A. N. Birnbaum, 2015: Effects of Independence Day fireworks on atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter in the United States, Atmospheric Environment, 115, 192-198, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.05.065. Reprint and Supplement.


  • Birner, T., S. M. Davis and D. J. Seidel, 2014: The changing width of Earth’s tropical belt, Physics Today, 67(12), 38; doi: 10.1063/PT.3.2620. Reprint
  • Free, Melissa and Bomin Sun, 2014: Trends in U.S. Total Cloud Cover from a Homogeneity-Adjusted Dataset J. Climate, 27, 4959–4969 doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00722.1. Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J., G. Feingold, A. R. Jacobson, and N. Loeb, 2014: Detection limits of albedo changes induced by climate engineering, Nature Climate Change, 4, 93-98. doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2076. Reprint


  • Belter, C. W., and D. J. Seidel, 2013: A bibliometric analysis of climate engineering research, WIREs Clim. Change, 4:417-427. doi: 10.1002/wcc.229. Reprint
  • Free, M. and B. Sun, 2013: Time-varying biases in U.S. total cloud cover data, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 30, 2838-2849. Reprint
  • Sun, B., A. Reale, S. Schroeder, D. J. Seidel, and B. Ballish, 2013: Toward improved corrections for radiation-induced biases in radiosonde temperature observations, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 4231-4243, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50369. Reprint
  • Zhang, Y., D. J. Seidel, and S. Zhang, 2013: Trends in planetary boundary layer height over Europe., J. Climate, 26, 10071-10076. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00108.1. Reprint


  • Seidel, D. J., M. Free, and J. S. Wang, 2012: Reexamining the warming in the tropical upper troposphere: Models versus radiosonde observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L22701, doi:10.1029/2012GL053850. Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J., Y. Zhang, A. Beljaars, J.-C. Golaz, A. R. Jacobson, and B. Medeiros, 2012: Climatology of the planetary boundary layer over the continental United States and Europe, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D17106, doi:10.1029/2012JD018143. Reprint
  • Thompson, D. W. J., D. J. Seidel, W. J. Randel, C.-Z. Zou, A. H. Butler, R. Lin, C. Long, C. Mears, A. Osso, 2012: The mystery of recent stratospheric temperature trends, Nature, 491,692-697, doi:10.1038/nature11579. Reprint
  • Wang, J. S., D. J. Seidel, and M. Free, 2012: How well do we know recent climate trends at the tropical tropopause? J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09118, doi:10.1029/2012JD017444. Reprint


  • Free, Melissa, 2011: The Seasonal Structure of Temperature Trends in the Tropical Lower Stratosphere. J. Climate., 24, 859- 866. doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3841.1 Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J., N. P. Gillett, J. R. Lanzante, K. P. Shine, P. W. Thorne 2011: Stratospheric temperature trends: Our evolving understanding. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2, 592-616, DOI: 10.1002/wcc.125. Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J., B. Sun, M. Pettey, and A. Reale 2011: Global radiosonde balloon drift statistics J. Geophys. Res., 116, D07102, doi:10.1029/2010JD014891. Reprint
  • Zhang, Y., and D. J. Seidel, 2011: Challenges in estimating trends in Arctic surface-based inversions from radiosonde data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L17806, doi: 10.1029/2011GL048728. Reprint
  • Zhang, Y., D. J. Seidel, J.-C. Golaz, C. Deser, R. A. Tomas, 2011: Climatological characteristics of Arctic and Antarctic surface-based inversions. J. Climate, 24, 5167-5186, doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI4004.1. Reprint


  • Seidel, D.J.,C.O. Ao, and K.Li, 2010: Estimating climatological planetary boundary layer heights from radiosonde observations: Comparison of methods and uncertainty analysis. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D16113, doi:10.1029/2009JD013680.Reprint
  • Sun, Bomin, Anthony Reale, Dian J. Seidel, and Douglas C. Hunt 2010: Comparing radiosonde and COSMIC atmospheric profile data to quantify differences among radiosonde types and the effects of imperfect collocation on comparison statistics J. Geophys. Res. 115, D23104, doi:10.1029/2010JD014457. Reprint
  • Thorne, P. W., Lanzante, J. R., Peterson, T. C., Seidel, D. J. and Shine, K. P., 2010: Tropospheric temperature trends: history of an ongoing controversy. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change,. doi: 10.1002/wcc.80. Reprint


  • Angell, J.K. and M. Free, 2009: Ground-based observations of the slowdown in ozone decline and onset of ozone increase. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D07303, doi: 10.1029/2008JD010860. Reprint
  • Free, M., and D. J. Seidel , 2009: Observed El Niño-Southern Oscillation temperature signal in the stratosphere J. Geophys. Res., 114, D23108, doi:10.1029/2009JD012420. Reprint
  • Free, Melissa and J. R. Lanzante, 2009: Effect of Volcanic Eruptions on the Vertical Temperature Profile in Radiosonde Data and Climate Models. Journal of Climate 22, 2925-39, DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2562.1. Reprint
  • Randel, W.J., K.P. Shine, J. Austin, J.Barnett, C. Claud, N.P. Gillett., P. Keckhut, U. Langematz, R. Lin, C. Long, C. Mears, A. Miller, J. Nash, D.J. Seidel, D.W.J. Thompson, F. Wu and S. Yoden, 2009: An update of observed stratospheric temperature trends.J.Geophys. Res., 114, D02107, doi:10.1029/2008JD010421. Reprint
  • Seidel,D.J., F.H. Berger, H. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Sisterson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vomel, J. Wang, 2009: Reference upper-air observations for climate: Rationale, progress, and plans. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 90, DOI: 10.11752008BAMS2540.1. Reprint


  • Lanzante, J.R., and M. Free, 2008: Comparison of radiosonde and GCM vertical temperature trend profiles: Effects of dataset choice and data homogenization. Journal of Climate 21, 5417-35, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2287.1. Reprint
  • Santer, B.D., P.W. Thorne, L. Haimberger, K.E. Taylor, T.M.L. Wigley, J.R. Lanzante, S. Solomon, M. Free, P.J. Gleckler, P.D. Jones, T.R. Karl, S.A. Klein, C. Mears, D. Nychka, G.A. Schmidt, S.C. Sherwood, and F.J. Wentz, 2008: Consistency of modelled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere. International Journal of Climatology 28, 1703-1722, doi:10.1002/joc.1756. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., Q, Fu, W.J. Randel and T.J. Reichler: Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate. Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo.2007.38 (published online: 2 December 2007) Reprint


  • Free, M., and D. J. Seidel, 2007: Comments on “Biases in stratospheric and tropospheric temperature trends derived from historical radiosonde data” by Randel and Wu (2006). J. Climate, 20, 3704-3709, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4210.1. Reprint and the Replyby Randel and Wu.
  • Randel, W. J., D. J. Seidel, and L. L. Pan, 2007: Observational characteristics of double tropopauses. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D07309, doi:10.1029/2006JD007904. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., and W.J. Randel, 2007: Recent widening of the tropical belt: Evidence from tropopause observations. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D20113, doi:10.1029/2007JD008861. Reprint
  • Sun, B., T.R. Karl, and D.J. Seidel, 2007: Changes in cloud ceiling occurrence frequencies and ceiling heights over the United States since the early 1950s. J. Climate, 20, 3956-3970, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4213.1. Reprint


  • Angell, J. K., 2006: Changes in the 300-mb north circumpolar vortex, 1963–2001. J. Climate, 19, 2984-2994. Reprint
  • Liang, X.-Z., J. Pan, J. Zhu, K. E. Kunkel, J. X. L. Wang, and A. Dai, 2006: Regional climate model downscaling of the U.S. summer climate and future change, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D10108, doi:10.1029/2005JD006685. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., and M. Free, 2006: Measurement requirements for climate monitoring of upper-air temperature derived from reanalysis data. J. Climate, 19, 854-871. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., and W.J. Randel, 2006: Variability and trends in the global tropopause estimated from radiosonde data, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D21101, doi:10.1029/2006JD007363. Reprint


  • Free, M., and D.J. Seidel, 2005: Causes of differing temperature trends in radiosonde upper-air datasets, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D07101, doi:10.1029/2004JD00548. Reprint
  • Free, M., D.J. Seidel, J.K. Angell, J. Lanzante, I. Durre, T.C. Peterson, 2005: Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate (RATPAC): A new data set of large-area anomaly time series, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D22101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006169. Reprint
  • Pepin, N. C., and J. R. Norris, 2005: An examination of the differences between surface and free-air temperature trend at high-elevation sites: relationships with cloud cover, snow cover, and wind. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D24112, doi:10.1029/2005JD006150. Reprint
  • Pepin, N. C., and D. J. Seidel, 2005: A global comparison of surface and free-air temperatures at high elevations, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D03104, doi:10.1029/2004JD005047. Reprint
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, C. Mears, F.J. Wentz, S.A. Klein, D.J. Seidel, K.E. Taylor, P.W. Thorne, M.F. Wehner, P.J. Gleckler, J.S. Boyle, W.D. Collins, K.W. Dixon, C. Doutriaux, M. Free, Q. Fu, J.E. Hansen, G.S. Jones, R. Ruedy, T.R. Karl, J.R. Lanzante, G.A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, G. Russell, and G.A. Schmidt, 2005: Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in the tropical atmosphere. Science, 309, 1551-1555. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., 2005: Research Highlights-Journal Club: Follow the ups and downs of a boundary in the atmosphere with a climate scientist. Nature, 435, 1140-1141 (30 June 2005) | doi: 10.1038/4351140a. Link to Text
  • Seidel, D.J., M. Free, and J. Wang, 2005: Diurnal cycle of upper-air temperature estimated from radiosondes, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D09102, doi:10.1029/2004JD005526. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., A. Robock, J. Angell, B. Hicks, K. Labitzke, J. Lanzante, J. Logan, J. Mahlman, V. Ramaswamy, B. Randel, G. Rasmusson, B. Ross, and S. F. Singer, 2005: Jim Angell’s contributions to meteorology: Report from a symposium honoring him on his 80th birthday, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 404-410, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-86-3-403. Reprint


  • Free, M., J.K. Angell, I. Durre, J. Lanzante, T.C. Peterson and D.J. Seidel, 2004: Using first differences to reduce inhomogeneity in radiosonde temperature datasets, J. Climate, 21, 4171-4179. Reprint
  • Free, M., M. Bister, K. Emanuel, 2004: Potential intensity of tropical cyclones: Comparison of results from radiosonde and reanalysis data, J. Climate, 17, 1722-1727.
  • Fu, Q., C.M. Johanson, S.G. Warren, and D.J. Seidel, 2004: Contribution of stratospheric cooling to satellite-inferred tropospheric temperature trends, Nature, 429, 55-58: doi: 10.103/nature02524. Reprint
  • Fu, Q., D.J. Seidel, C.M. Johanson, and S.G. Warren, 2004: Atmospheric science: Stratospheric cooling and the troposphere (reply), Nature, doi: 10.1038/nature03210. Reprint
  • Liang, X.-Z., L. Li, K.E. Kunkel, M. Ting, and J. Wang, 2004, Regional climate model simulation of U.S. precipitation during 1982-2002: Part I: Annual cycle, J. Climate, in press.
  • Seidel, D.J., J.K. Angell, J. Christy, M. Free, S.A. Klein, J.R. Lanzante, C. Mears, D. Parker, M. Schabel, R. Spencer, A. Sterin, P. Thorne, and F. Wentz, 2004: Uncertainty in signals of large-scale climate variations in radiosonde and satellite upper-air temperature datasets, J. Climate, 17, 2225-2240. Reprint. The data used in this study are available via J. Climate’s electronic supplementthis link opens in a new window.
  • Seidel, D.J., and J.R. Lanzante, 2004: An assessment of three alternatives to linear trends for characterizing global atmospheric temperature changes, J.Geophys. Res.,109, D14108, doi:10.1029/2003JD004414. Reprint


  • Angell, J.K., 2003: Effect of exclusion of anomalous tropical stations on temperature trends from a 63-station radiosonde network, and comparison with other analyses. J. Climate, 16, 2288-2295.
  • Fan, L., J. Li, Z. Wei, W. Dong, and J. Wang 2003: Annual variations of the Arctic oscillation and the Antarctic oscillation.Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 27(3):419-424.
  • Lanzante, J.R., S.A. Klein, and D.J. Seidel, 2003: Temporal homogenization of monthly radiosonde temperature data. Part I: Methodology. J. Climate, 16, 224-240. Reprint
  • Lanzante, J.R., S.A. Klein, and D.J. Seidel, 2003: Temporal homogenization of monthly radiosonde temperature data. Part II: Trends, sensitivities, and MSU comparison. J. Climate, 16, 241-262. Reprint
  • Li, J., and J.X.L. Wang, 2003: A modified zonal index and its physical sense. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(12):1632, doi:10.1029/2003GL017441.
  • Li, J., and J.X.L. Wang, 2003: A new North Atlantic oscillation index and its variability. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 20(5):661-676.
  • Seidel, D.J., and M. Free, 2003: Comparison of lower-tropospheric temperature climatologies and trends at low and high elevation radiosonde sites. Climatic Change, 59, 53-74. Preprint
  • Seidel, D.J., and I. Durre, 2003: Comments on “Trends in low and high cloud boundaries and errors in height determination of cloud boundaries” by I.V. Chernykh, O.A. Alduchov, and R.E. Eskridge, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 237-240. DOI:10.1175/BAMS-84-2-237. Reprint
  • Shine, K.P., M.S. Bourqui, F. Forster, S.H.E. Hare, U. Langematz, P. Braesicke, V. Grewe, C. Schnadt, C.A. Smith, J.D. Haigh, J. Austin,, N. Buchart, D. Shindell, W.J. Randel, T. Nagashima, R.W. Portman, S. Solomon, D.J. Seidel, J. Lanzante, S. Klein, V. Ramaswamy, M.D. Schwarzkopf, 2003: A comparison of model-predicted trends in stratospheric temperatures. Quart. J. Royal. Meteor. Soc., 129, 1565-1588. doi: 10.1256/qj.02.186


  • Elliott, W.P., R.J. Ross, and W.H. Blackmore, 2002: Recent changes in NWS upper-air observations with emphasis on changes from VIZ to Vaisala radiosondes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 1003-1017.
  • Free, M, and J. K. Angell, 2002: Effect of volcanoes on the vertical temperature profile in radiosonde data. J. Geophys. Res., 10.1029/2001JD001128.
  • Free, M., I. Durre, E. Aguilar, D. Seidel, T.C. Peterson, R.E. Eskridge, J.K. Luers, D. Parker, M. Gordon, J. Lanzante, S. Klein, J. Christy, S. Schroeder, B. Soden, and L.M. McMillin, 2002: Creating climate reference datasets: CARDS workshop on adjusting radiosonde temperature data for climate monitoring. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 891-899. Reprint
  • Gettelman, A., D. J. Seidel, M. C. Wheeler and R. J. Ross, 2002: Multi-decadal trends in tropical convective available potential energy. J. Geophys. Res., 107: D21, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001082. Reprint
  • Ross, R.J., W.P. Elliott, and D.J. Seidel, 2002: Lower-tropospheric humidity-temperature relationships in radiosonde observations and atmospheric general circulation models. J. Hydromet., 3, 26-38. Reprint
  • Zhou, S., A.J. Miller, J. Wang, and J.K. Angell, 2002: Downward-propagating temperature anomalies in the preconditioned polar stratosphere. J. Climate, 15, 781-792. 2001.


  • Angell, J.K., 2001: Relation of size and displacement of the 300 mb north circumpolar vortex to QBO, El Nino, and sunspot number, 1963-2000. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 31787-31794.
  • >Levitus, S., J.I. Antonov, J. Wang, T.L. Delworth, K.W. Dixon, A.J. Broccoli, 2001: Anthropogenic warming of Earth’s climate system. Science, 292, 267-269.
  • Ramaswamy, V., M.-L. Chanin, J. Angell, J. Barnett, D. Gaffen, M. Gelman, P. Kekhut, Y. Koshelkov, K. Labitzke, J.-J. R. Lin, A. O’Neill, J. Nash, W. Randel, R. Rood, K. Shine, M. Shiotani, and R. Swinbank, 2001: Stratospheric temperature trends: Observations and model simulations. Rev. Geophys., 39, 71-122.
  • Ross, R.J., and W.P. Elliott, 2001: Radiosonde-based Northern Hemisphere tropospheric water vapor trends. J. Climate, 14, 1602-1612.
  • Ross, R.J., D.J. Gaffen, and J.Gille, 2001: Preface to Water Vapor in the Climate System special section. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 5197. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., R.J. Ross, J.K. Angell, and G.C. Reid, 2001: Climatological characteristics of the tropical tropopause as revealed by radiosondes. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 7857-7878. Reprint
  • Wang, J.X.L., and D.J. Gaffen, 2001: Late-twentieth-century climatology and trends of surface humidity and temperature in China. J. Climate, 14, 2833-2845. Reprint
  • Wang, J.X.L., and D.J. Gaffen, 2001: Trends in extremes of surface humidity, temperatures and summertime heat stress in China. Adv. Atmospheric Sciences, 18(5), 742-751.


  • Angell, J.K., 2000: Tropospheric temperature variations adjusted for El Nino, 1958-1998. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 11,841-11,849.
  • Angell, J.K., 2000: Difference in radiosonde temperature trend for the period 1979-1998 of MSU data and the period 1959-1998 twice as long. Geophys. Research Letters, 27, 2177-2180.
  • Elliott, W.P. and R.J. Ross, 2000: Estimated impacts of synoptic scheduling of radiosondes on climate records. J. Climate, 13, 2116-2120
  • Gaffen, D.J., R.J. Ross, and J. Gille 2000: Water vapor’s role in climate revisited at follow-up Chapman Conference. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 81, 158-165.
  • Gaffen, D.J., M.A. Sargent, R.E. Habermann, and J.R. Lanzante, 2000: Sensitivity of tropospheric and stratospheric temperature trends to radiosonde data quality. J. Climate, 13, 1776-1796. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., B.D. Santer, J.S. Boyle, J.R. Christy, N.E. Graham, and R.J. Ross, 2000: Multi- decadal changes in the vertical temperature structure of the tropical troposphere. Science, 287, 1239-1241. Reprint
  • Randel, W.J., F. Wu, and D.J. Gaffen, 2000: Interannual variability of the tropical tropopause derived from radiosonde data and NCEP reanalyses. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 15,509-15,524. Reprint
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, D.J. Gaffen, L. Bengtsson, C. Doutriaux, J.S. Boyle, M. Esch, J.J. Hnilo, P.D. Jones, G.A. Meehl, E. Roeckner, K.E. Taylor, and M. Wehner, 2000: Interpreting differential temperature trends at the surface and in the lower troposphere. Science, 287, 1227-1232. Reprint
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L.Wigley, J.S. Boyle, D.J. Gaffen, J.J. Hnilo, D. Nychka, D.E. Parker and K.E. Taylor, 2000: Statistical significance of trend differences in layer-average temperature time series. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 7337-7356. Reprint


  • Angell, J.K., 1999: Variation with height and latitude of radiosonde temperature trends in North America, 1975-94. J. Climate, 12, 2551-2561.
  • Gaffen, D.J., and R.J. Ross, 1999: Climatology and trends of U.S. surface humidity and temperature. J. Climate, 12, 811-828. Reprint
  • Ross, R.J. and S. Rosenfeld, 1999: Correction to ‘Estimating mean weighted temperature of the atmosphere for Global Positioning System applications’. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27625.
  • Wang, J.X.L., and J.K. Angell, 1999: Air stagnation climatology for the United States(1948-1998). NOAA/Air Resources Laboratory ATLAS No. 1, Silver Spring, MD, 73 pp.


  • Angell, J.K., 1998: Contraction of the 300 mb north circumpolar vortex during 1963-97, and its movement into the eastern hemisphere. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 25, 887-25, 893.
  • Angell, J.K., 1998: Impact of El Chichon and Pinatubo on ozonesonde profiles in the north extratropics. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4485-4488.
  • Elliott, W.P., R.J. Ross, and B. Schwartz, 1998: Effects on climate records of changes in National Weather Service humidity processing procedures. J. Climate, 11, 2424-2436.
  • Gaffen, D.J., 1998: Falling satellites, rising temperatures? Nature, 394, 615-616. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., D.B. Franklin, E.W. Friday, Jr., E. Gorre-Dale, H. Kootval, and K.E. Weston, 1998: The international participation of women in World Meteorological Organization activities and in the fields of meteorology and hydrology. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 861-864.
  • Gaffen, D.J., and R.J. Ross, 1998: Increased summertime heat stress in the United States. Nature, 396, 529-530. Reprintthis link opens in a new window
  • Ross, R.J., and D.J. Gaffen, 1998: Comment on “Widespread tropical atmospheric drying from 1979 to 1995” by Steven R. Schroeder and James P. McGuirk. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4357-4358. Reprint
  • Angell, J.K., 1997: Stratospheric warming due to Agung, El Chichon and Pinatubo taking into account the QBO. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 9479-9485.
  • Angell, J.K., 1997: Estimated impact of Agung, El Chichon and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions on global and regional total ozone after adjustment for the QBO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 647-650.
  • Elliott, W.P., and J.K. Angell, 1997: Variations of cloudiness, precipitable water, and relative humidity over the U.S.: 1973-1993. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 41-44.
  • Gaffen, D.J., R.D. Rosen, D.A. Salstein, and J.S. Boyle, 1997: Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor with simulations from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. J. Climate, 10, 1648-1661. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., E.W. Friday, K.E. Weston, and D.B. Franklin, 1997: The participation of women in meteorology and hydrology in the United States: The U.S. response to a World Meteorological Organization Questionnaire. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2241-2245.
  • Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Reudy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo., J. Logan, A. Luckett, M.P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, 1997: Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 25679-25720.
  • Ross, R.J., and S. Rosenfeld, 1997: Estimating mean weighted temperature of the atmosphere for GPS applications. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 21719-21730.


  • Angell, J.K., 1996: Temperatures after volcanic eruptions. In G. Fiocco, D. Fua, and G.Visconti eds. The Mt. Pinatubo Eruption Effects on the Atmosphere and Climate, NATO Series: Global Environmental Change Vol.42 Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 83-93.
  • Elliott, W. P., 1996: Atmospheric Structure, in S. Schneider, Editor, Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, 67-70. Oxford University Press, 929 pp.
  • Gaffen, D.J. 1996: A Digitized Metadata Set of Global Upper-Air Station Histories. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL ARL-211 , NOAA Air Resources Lab. Silver Spring, MD, 38 pp.
  • Gaffen, D. J., 1996: Humidity, in S. Schneider, Editor, Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, 404-407. Oxford University Press, 929 pp.
  • Ross, R.J., and W.P. Elliott, 1996: Water vapor trends over North America: 1973-1993. J. Climate, 9, 3561-3574. Reprint
  • Ross, R.J., J. Otterman, D. Starr, W. Elliott, J. Angell, and J. Susskind, 1996: Regional trends of surface and tropospheric temperature and evening-morning temperature difference in northern latitudes: 1973-93. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 3179-3182.
  • Ross, R.J., and W.P. Elliott, 1996: Tropospheric precipitable water: a radiosonde-based climatology. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL ARL-219, 132 pp.
  • Elliott, W.P., and D.J. Gaffen, 1995: Chapman conference probes water vapor in the climate system. EOS, 76, 67.


  • Elliott, W.P., and D.J. Gaffen, 1995: Water vapor in the climate system. Earth and Space, 7, 5-7.
  • Elliott, W.P., 1995: On detecting long-term changes in atmospheric moisture. Climatic Change, 31, 349-367.Reprint


  • Elliott, W.P., D.J. Gaffen, J.D. Kahl and J.K. Angell, 1994: The effects of moisture on layer thicknesses used to monitor global temperatures. J. Climate, 7, 304-308. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., 1994: Temporal inhomogeneities in radiosonde temperature records. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3667-3676. Reprint


  • Angell, J.K., 1993: Comparison of stratospheric warming following Agung, El Chichon, and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions.Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 715-718.
  • Angell, J.K., 1993: Reexamination of the relations between depth of the Antarctic ozone hole, and equatorial QBO and SST, 1962-1992. Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 1559- 1562.
  • Elliott, W.P., and D.J. Gaffen, 1993: Effects of conversion algorithms on reported upper-air dewpoint depressions. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 1323-1325. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., and W.P. Elliott, 1993: Column water vapor content in clear and cloudy skies. J. Climate, 6, 2278-2287. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., 1993: Historical changes in radiosonde instruments and practices, Instruments and Observing Methods, Report 50, WMO/TD-541, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 123 pp.


  • Angell, J.K., 1992: Relation between 300-mb north polar vortex and equatorial SST, QBO, and sunspot number and the record contraction of the vortex in 1988-89. J. Climate, 5, 22-29.
  • Angell, J.K., 1992: Evidence of a relation between El Niño and QBO and for an El Niño in 1991-92. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 285-288.
  • Gaffen, D.J., 1992: Observed annual and interannual variations in tropospheric water vapor, NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL ARL-198, NOAA Air Resources Lab., Silver Spring, MD, 162 pp.
  • Gaffen, D.J., and T.P. Barnett, 1992: A comparison of observations and model simulation of tropospheric water vapor, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2775-2780. Abstract
  • Gaffen, D.J., W.P. Elliott and A. Robock, 1992: Relationships between tropospheric water vapor and surface temperature as observed by radiosondes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 1839-1842. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., A. Robock and W.P. Elliott, 1992: Annual cycles of tropospheric water vapor, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18,185-18,193.Abstract


  • Angell, J.K., 1991: Changes in tropospheric and stratospheric global temperatures, 1958-88. In M. E. Schlessinger (ed), Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations, 231-247.
  • Angell, J.K., 1991: Stratospheric temperature change as a function of height and sunspot number during 1972-89 based on rocketsonde and radiosonde data. J. Climate, 4, 1170-1180.
  • Elliott, W.P., J.K. Angell, and K.W. Thoning, 1991: Relation of atmospheric CO2 to tropical sea and air temperatures and precipitation. Tellus, 43B, 144-155.
  • Elliott, W.P., and D.J. Gaffen, 1991: On the utility of radiosonde humidity archives for climate studies. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72, 1507-1520. Reprint
  • Elliott, W.P., M.S. Smith, and J.K. Angell, 1991: Monitoring tropospheric water vapor changes using radiosonde data. In M. E. Schlessinger (ed), Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations, 311-328, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 615 pp.
  • Gaffen D.J., T.P. Barnett, and W.P. Elliott, 1991: Space and time scales of global tropospheric moisture. J. Climate, 4, 989-1008.Reprint

Data Archives & Repositories

ARL FTP Server

READY Data Archives

The National Weather Service’s National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) runs a series of computer analyses and forecasts operationally. NOAA’s Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) routinely uses NCEP model data for use in air quality transport and dispersion modeling calculations.

Volcanic Ash Meteorological Data (FTP server at NCEP)

USCRN Datasets (hosted at NCEI)

NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information

NOAA NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) hosts and provides public access to one of the most significant archives for environmental data on Earth with over 37 petabytes of comprehensive atmospheric, coastal, oceanic, and geophysical data.

Other Publications and Reports

Other Papers and Reports

HYSPLIT-SV, Atrazine and Dioxin

Air Toxics Overviews

Workshop on Modeling Air Toxics with HYSPLIT

Estimated 1999 mercury emissions from large point sources in Mexico, based on an inventory prepared by Acosta and Associates for the Commission for Environmental Cooperation.

Mark Cohen gave a one-day course August 24, 2009 on modeling air toxics with HYSPLIT to a group of Mexican government and academic scientists in Mexico City. The course was part of a week-long workshop organized by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC)this link opens in a new window.

The course utilized the extensive training materials developed for HYSPLIT by Roland Draxler, Glenn Rolph and others at ARL, and also included new materials regarding simulation of mercury and dioxin. Several hand’s-on computer modeling exercises were included in the training. More information, including workshop data and materials, is available regarding this 2009 Mexico Air Toxics Training.


Review of Great Lakes Air Toxics

A five-part set of review documents regarding the emissions, monitoring, fate and transport of toxic air pollutants in relation to the Great Lakes was prepared for the International Joint Commission (IJC)this link opens in a new window in 1997. The review focused on the 27 Level I and Level II pollutants identified in the Binational Virtual Elimination Strategy.

Estimated mean air transport travel times for atmospheric pollutants to the Great Lakes, prepared by Eva Voldner for the International Joint Commission.

Other Air Toxics Overviews

Conceptual diagram of phenomena affecting the atmospheric fate and transport of air toxics.

Overview presentations regarding atmospheric toxics include the following:

HYSPLIT-SV (for Semi-Volatile pollutants)

Fraction of emissions of four dioxin congeners accounted for in different fate pathways anywhere in the modeling domain for a hypothetical 1996 year-long continuous source near the center of the domain (figure 6 from Cohen et al. 2002).

A special version of the HYSPLIT model has been developed to simulate the atmospheric fate and transport of semivolatile pollutants such as PCDD/F (dioxin). Features in HYSPLIT-SV include the following:

  • Deposition accounting for specific point and area receptors
  • Vapor/particle partitioning for semivolatile compounds
  • Atmospheric chemistry: reaction with OH and photolysis
  • Particle size distribution for particle-associated material
  • Particle deposition estimated for each particle size
  • Enhanced treatment of wet and dry deposition
  • Separate output for different deposition pathways

Documents Available for Download

A number of documents are available describing the results of atmospheric dioxin modeling with the HYSPLIT-SV model, including the following:

Atrazine – Documents Available for Download

Mid-range estimate of the contribution to atmospheric deposition of Atrazine to Lake Michigan for the period March 5 – July 23, 1991 (grams deposited per km2 of source area), based on the analysis presented in Exposure To Endocrine Disrupters From Long-Range Air Transport Of Pesticides).

The following documents are available describing the results of atmospheric atrazine modeling with the HYSPLIT-SV model:

  • Exposure To Endocrine Disrupters From Long-Range Air Transport Of Pesticides. Mark Cohen, Barry Commoner, Paul W. Bartlett, Paul Cooney, Holger Eisl. Final report submitted to the W. Alton Jones Foundation, November 17, 1997, Center For The Biology Of Natural Systems, Queens College, CUNY, Flushing, NY 11367. This study involved developing an atrazine emissions inventory for the U.S. and Canada and applying a specially configured version of the NOAA HYSPLIT model to estimate the fate and transport of atrazine emitted to the air. Source-receptor relationships for the Great Lakes and other selected receptors are estimated.
  • Maps showing week-by-week estimates of atrazine emissions during 1991 (also available as as a PowerPoint presentation [16 MB]). Prepared in 1999 by Larissa Mathewson-Brake (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) and Mark Cohen based on analysis conducted in report immediately above.

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