Climate Variability and Change Analysis Publications

To obtain reprints of any of these articles, please contact the first author.


  • Bodeker, G. E., S. Bojinski, D. Cimini, R. J. Dirksesen, M. Haeffelin, J. W. Hannigan, D. F. Hurst, T. Leblanc, F. Madonna, M. Maturilli, A. C. Mikalsesen, R. Philipona, T. Reale, D. J. Seidel, D. G. H. Tan, P. W. Thorne, H. Vömel, and J. Wang (2016): Reference Upper-Air Observations for Climate- From Concept to Reality, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 97, 123–135. doi: Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J., J. Li, C. Mears, I. Moradi, J. Nash, W. J. Randel, R. Saunders, D. W. J. Thompson, and C.-Z. Zou (2016): Stratospheric temperature changes during the satellite era, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, doi:10.1002/2015JD024039. Reprint


  • Butler, A. H. D. J. Seidel, S. C. Hardiman, N. Butchart, T. Birner, and A. Match, 2015: Defining sudden stratospheric warmings, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 96 (11),1913–1928, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00173.1. Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J. and A. N. Birnbaum, 2015: Effects of Independence Day fireworks on atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter in the United States, Atmospheric Environment, 115, 192-198, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.05.065. Reprint and Supplement and a slide presentation below.


  • Birner, T., S. M. Davis and D. J. Seidel, 2014: The changing width of Earth’s tropical belt, Physics Today, 67(12), 38; doi: 10.1063/PT.3.2620. Reprint
  • Free, Melissa and Bomin Sun, 2014: Trends in U.S. Total Cloud Cover from a Homogeneity-Adjusted Dataset J. Climate, 27, 4959–4969 doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00722.1. Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J., G. Feingold, A. R. Jacobson, and N. Loeb, 2014: Detection limits of albedo changes induced by climate engineering, Nature Climate Change, 4, 93-98. doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2076. Reprint


  • Belter, C. W., and D. J. Seidel, 2013: A bibliometric analysis of climate engineering research, WIREs Clim. Change, 4:417-427. doi: 10.1002/wcc.229. Reprint
  • Free, M. and B. Sun, 2013: Time-varying biases in U.S. total cloud cover data, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 30, 2838-2849. Reprint
  • Sun, B., A. Reale, S. Schroeder, D. J. Seidel, and B. Ballish, 2013: Toward improved corrections for radiation-induced biases in radiosonde temperature observations, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, 4231-4243, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50369. Reprint
  • Zhang, Y., D. J. Seidel, and S. Zhang, 2013: Trends in planetary boundary layer height over Europe., J. Climate, 26, 10071-10076. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00108.1. Reprint


  • Seidel, D. J., M. Free, and J. S. Wang, 2012: Reexamining the warming in the tropical upper troposphere: Models versus radiosonde observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L22701, doi:10.1029/2012GL053850. Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J., Y. Zhang, A. Beljaars, J.-C. Golaz, A. R. Jacobson, and B. Medeiros, 2012: Climatology of the planetary boundary layer over the continental United States and Europe, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D17106, doi:10.1029/2012JD018143. Reprint
  • Thompson, D. W. J., D. J. Seidel, W. J. Randel, C.-Z. Zou, A. H. Butler, R. Lin, C. Long, C. Mears, A. Osso, 2012: The mystery of recent stratospheric temperature trends, Nature, 491,692-697, doi:10.1038/nature11579. Reprint
  • Wang, J. S., D. J. Seidel, and M. Free, 2012: How well do we know recent climate trends at the tropical tropopause? J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09118, doi:10.1029/2012JD017444. Reprint


  • Free, Melissa, 2011: The Seasonal Structure of Temperature Trends in the Tropical Lower Stratosphere. J. Climate., 24, 859- 866. doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3841.1 Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J., N. P. Gillett, J. R. Lanzante, K. P. Shine, P. W. Thorne 2011: Stratospheric temperature trends: Our evolving understanding. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 2, 592-616, DOI: 10.1002/wcc.125. Reprint
  • Seidel, D. J., B. Sun, M. Pettey, and A. Reale 2011: Global radiosonde balloon drift statistics J. Geophys. Res., 116, D07102, doi:10.1029/2010JD014891. Reprint
  • Zhang, Y., and D. J. Seidel, 2011: Challenges in estimating trends in Arctic surface-based inversions from radiosonde data.Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L17806, doi: 10.1029/2011GL048728. Reprint
  • Zhang, Y., D. J. Seidel, J.-C. Golaz, C. Deser, R. A. Tomas, 2011: Climatological characteristics of Arctic and Antarctic surface-based inversions. J. Climate, 24, 5167-5186, doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI4004.1. Reprint


  • Seidel, D.J.,C.O.Ao, and K.Li, 2010: Estimating climatological planetary boundary layer heights from radiosonde observations: Comparison of methods and uncertainty analysis. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D16113, doi:10.1029/2009JD013680.Reprint
  • Sun, Bomin, Anthony Reale, Dian J. Seidel, and Douglas C. Hunt 2010: Comparing radiosonde and COSMIC atmospheric profile data to quantify differences among radiosonde types and the effects of imperfect collocation on comparison statistics J. Geophys. Res. 115, D23104, doi:10.1029/2010JD014457. Reprint
  • Thorne, P. W., Lanzante, J. R., Peterson, T. C., Seidel, D. J. and Shine, K. P., 2010: Tropospheric temperature trends: history of an ongoing controversy. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change,. doi: 10.1002/wcc.80. Reprint


  • Angell, J.K. and M. Free, 2009: Ground-based observations of the slowdown in ozone decline and onset of ozone increase. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D07303, doi: 10.1029/2008JD010860. Reprint
  • Free, M., and D. J. Seidel , 2009: Observed El Niño-Southern Oscillation temperature signal in the stratosphere J. Geophys. Res., 114, D23108, doi:10.1029/2009JD012420. Reprint
  • Free, Melissa and J. R. Lanzante, 2009: Effect of Volcanic Eruptions on the Vertical Temperature Profile in Radiosonde Data and Climate Models. Journal of Climate 22, 2925-39, DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2562.1. Reprint
  • Randel, W.J., K.P. Shine, J. Austin, J.Barnett, C. Claud, N.P. Gillett., P. Keckhut, U. Langematz, R. Lin, C. Long, C. Mears, A. Miller, J. Nash, D.J. Seidel, D.W.J. Thompson, F. Wu and S. Yoden, 2009: An update of observed stratospheric temperature trends.J.Geophys. Res., 114, D02107, doi:10.1029/2008JD010421. Reprint
  • Seidel,D.J., F.H. Berger, H. Diamond, J. Dykema, D. Goodrich, F. Immler, W. Murray, T. Peterson, D. Sisterson, M. Sommer, P. Thorne, H. Vomel, J. Wang, 2009: Reference upper-air observations for climate: Rationale, progress, and plans. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 90, DOI: 10.11752008BAMS2540.1. Reprint


  • Lanzante, J.R., and M. Free, 2008: Comparison of radiosonde and GCM vertical temperature trend profiles: Effects of dataset choice and data homogenization. Journal of Climate 21, 5417-35, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2287.1. Reprint
  • Santer, B.D., P.W. Thorne, L. Haimberger, K.E. Taylor, T.M.L. Wigley, J.R. Lanzante, S. Solomon, M. Free, P.J. Gleckler, P.D. Jones, T.R. Karl, S.A. Klein, C. Mears, D. Nychka, G.A. Schmidt, S.C. Sherwood, and F.J. Wentz, 2008: Consistency of modelled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere. International Journal of Climatology 28, 1703-1722, doi:10.1002/joc.1756. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., Q, Fu, W.J. Randel and T.J. Reichler: Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate. Nature Geoscience, doi:10.1038/ngeo.2007.38 (published online: 2 December 2007) Reprint


  • Free, M., and D. J. Seidel, 2007: Comments on “Biases in stratospheric and tropospheric temperature trends derived from historical radiosonde data” by Randel and Wu (2006). J. Climate, 20, 3704-3709, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4210.1. Reprint and the Replyby Randel and Wu.
  • Randel, W. J., D. J. Seidel, and L. L. Pan, 2007: Observational characteristics of double tropopausesJ. Geophys. Res., 112, D07309, doi:10.1029/2006JD007904. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., and W.J. Randel, 2007: Recent widening of the tropical belt: Evidence from tropopause observations. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D20113, doi:10.1029/2007JD008861. Reprint
  • Sun, B., T.R. Karl, and D.J. Seidel, 2007: Changes in cloud ceiling occurrence frequencies and ceiling heights over the United States since the early 1950s. J. Climate, 20, 3956-3970, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI4213.1. Reprint


  • Angell, J. K., 2006: Changes in the 300-mb north circumpolar vortex, 1963–2001J. Climate, 19, 2984-2994. Reprint
  • Liang, X.-Z., J. Pan, J. Zhu, K. E. Kunkel, J. X. L. Wang, and A. Dai, 2006: Regional climate model downscaling of the U.S. summer climate and future change, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D10108, doi:10.1029/2005JD006685. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., and M. Free, 2006: Measurement requirements for climate monitoring of upper-air temperature derived from reanalysis data. J. Climate, 19, 854-871. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., and W.J. Randel, 2006: Variability and trends in the global tropopause estimated from radiosonde dataJ. Geophys. Res., 111, D21101, doi:10.1029/2006JD007363. Reprint


  • Free, M., and D.J. Seidel, 2005: Causes of differing temperature trends in radiosonde upper-air datasets, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D07101, doi:10.1029/2004JD00548. Reprint
  • Free, M., D.J. Seidel, J.K. Angell, J. Lanzante, I. Durre, T.C. Peterson, 2005: Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate (RATPAC): A new data set of large-area anomaly time seriesJ. Geophys. Res., 110, D22101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006169. Reprint
  • Pepin, N. C., and J. R. Norris, 2005: An examination of the differences between surface and free-air temperature trend at high-elevation sites: relationships with cloud cover, snow cover, and wind. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D24112, doi:10.1029/2005JD006150. Reprint
  • Pepin, N. C., and D. J. Seidel, 2005: A global comparison of surface and free-air temperatures at high elevationsJ. Geophys. Res., 110, D03104, doi:10.1029/2004JD005047. Reprint
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, C. Mears, F.J. Wentz, S.A. Klein, D.J. Seidel, K.E. Taylor, P.W. Thorne, M.F. Wehner, P.J. Gleckler, J.S. Boyle, W.D. Collins, K.W. Dixon, C. Doutriaux, M. Free, Q. Fu, J.E. Hansen, G.S. Jones, R. Ruedy, T.R. Karl, J.R. Lanzante, G.A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, G. Russell, and G.A. Schmidt, 2005: Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in the tropical atmosphere. Science, 309, 1551-1555. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., 2005: Research Highlights-Journal Club: Follow the ups and downs of a boundary in the atmosphere with a climate scientistNature, 435, 1140-1141 (30 June 2005) | doi: 10.1038/4351140a. Link to Text
  • Seidel, D.J., M. Free, and J. Wang, 2005: Diurnal cycle of upper-air temperature estimated from radiosondesJ. Geophys. Res., 110, D09102, doi:10.1029/2004JD005526. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., A. Robock, J. Angell, B. Hicks, K. Labitzke, J. Lanzante, J. Logan, J. Mahlman, V. Ramaswamy, B. Randel, G. Rasmusson, B. Ross, and S. F. Singer, 2005: Jim Angell’s contributions to meteorology: Report from a symposium honoring him on his 80th birthdayBull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 404-410, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-86-3-403. Reprint


  • Free, M., J.K. Angell, I. Durre, J. Lanzante, T.C. Peterson and D.J. Seidel, 2004: Using first differences to reduce inhomogeneity in radiosonde temperature datasetsJ. Climate, 21, 4171-4179. Reprint
  • Free, M., M. Bister, K. Emanuel, 2004: Potential intensity of tropical cyclones: Comparison of results from radiosonde and reanalysis dataJ. Climate, 17, 1722-1727.
  • Fu, Q., C.M. Johanson, S.G. Warren, and D.J. Seidel, 2004: Contribution of stratospheric cooling to satellite-inferred tropospheric temperature trendsNature, 429, 55-58: doi: 10.103/nature02524. Reprint
  • Fu, Q., D.J. Seidel, C.M. Johanson, and S.G. Warren, 2004: Atmospheric science: Stratospheric cooling and the troposphere (reply)Nature, doi: 10.1038/nature03210. Reprint
  • Liang, X.-Z., L. Li, K.E. Kunkel, M. Ting, and J. Wang, 2004, Regional climate model simulation of U.S. precipitation during 1982-2002: Part I: Annual cycleJ. Climate, in press.
  • Seidel, D.J., J.K. Angell, J. Christy, M. Free, S.A. Klein, J.R. Lanzante, C. Mears, D. Parker, M. Schabel, R. Spencer, A. Sterin, P. Thorne, and F. Wentz, 2004: Uncertainty in signals of large-scale climate variations in radiosonde and satellite upper-air temperature datasetsJ. Climate, 17, 2225-2240. Reprint.The data used in this study are available via J. Climate’s electronic supplementthis link opens in a new window.
  • Seidel, D.J., and J.R. Lanzante, 2004: An assessment of three alternatives to linear trends for characterizing global atmospheric temperature changesJ.Geophys. Res.,109, D14108, doi:10.1029/2003JD004414. Reprint


  • Angell, J.K., 2003: Effect of exclusion of anomalous tropical stations on temperature trends from a 63-station radiosonde network, and comparison with other analyses. J. Climate, 16, 2288-2295.
  • Fan, L., J. Li, Z. Wei, W. Dong, and J. Wang 2003: Annual variations of the Arctic oscillation and the Antarctic oscillation.Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 27(3):419-424.
  • Lanzante, J.R., S.A. Klein, and D.J. Seidel, 2003: Temporal homogenization of monthly radiosonde temperature data. Part I: Methodology. J. Climate, 16, 224-240. Reprint
  • Lanzante, J.R., S.A. Klein, and D.J. Seidel, 2003: Temporal homogenization of monthly radiosonde temperature data. Part II: Trends, sensitivities, and MSU comparison. J. Climate, 16, 241-262. Reprint
  • Li, J., and J.X.L. Wang, 2003: A modified zonal index and its physical sense. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(12):1632, doi:10.1029/2003GL017441.
  • Li, J., and J.X.L. Wang, 2003: A new North Atlantic oscillation index and its variability. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 20(5):661-676.
  • Seidel, D.J., and M. Free, 2003: Comparison of lower-tropospheric temperature climatologies and trends at low and high elevation radiosonde sites. Climatic Change, 59, 53-74. Preprint
  • Seidel, D.J., and I. Durre, 2003: Comments on “Trends in low and high cloud boundaries and errors in height determination of cloud boundaries” by I.V. Chernykh, O.A. Alduchov, and R.E. EskridgeBull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84, 237-240. DOI:10.1175/BAMS-84-2-237. Reprint
  • Shine, K.P., M.S. Bourqui, F. Forster, S.H.E. Hare, U. Langematz, P. Braesicke, V. Grewe, C. Schnadt, C.A. Smith, J.D. Haigh, J. Austin,, N. Buchart, D. Shindell, W.J. Randel, T. Nagashima, R.W. Portman, S. Solomon, D.J. Seidel, J. Lanzante, S. Klein, V. Ramaswamy, M.D. Schwarzkopf, 2003: A comparison of model-predicted trends in stratospheric temperaturesQuart. J. Royal. Meteor. Soc., 129, 1565-1588. doi: 10.1256/qj.02.186


  • Elliott, W.P., R.J. Ross, and W.H. Blackmore, 2002: Recent changes in NWS upper-air observations with emphasis on changes from VIZ to Vaisala radiosondes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 1003-1017.
  • Free, M, and J. K. Angell, 2002: Effect of volcanoes on the vertical temperature profile in radiosonde data. J. Geophys. Res., 10.1029/2001JD001128.
  • Free, M., I. Durre, E. Aguilar, D. Seidel, T.C. Peterson, R.E. Eskridge, J.K. Luers, D. Parker, M. Gordon, J. Lanzante, S. Klein, J. Christy, S. Schroeder, B. Soden, and L.M. McMillin, 2002: Creating climate reference datasets: CARDS workshop on adjusting radiosonde temperature data for climate monitoring. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 891-899. Reprint
  • Gettelman, A., D. J. Seidel, M. C. Wheeler and R. J. Ross, 2002: Multi-decadal trends in tropical convective available potential energy. J. Geophys. Res., 107: D21, doi: 10.1029/2001JD001082. Reprint
  • Ross, R.J., W.P. Elliott, and D.J. Seidel, 2002: Lower-tropospheric humidity-temperature relationships in radiosonde observations and atmospheric general circulation models. J. Hydromet., 3, 26-38. Reprint
  • Zhou, S., A.J. Miller, J. Wang, and J.K. Angell, 2002: Downward-propagating temperature anomalies in the preconditioned polar stratosphereJ. Climate, 15, 781-792. 2001.


  • Angell, J.K., 2001: Relation of size and displacement of the 300 mb north circumpolar vortex to QBO, El Nino, and sunspot number, 1963-2000. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 31787-31794.
  • >Levitus, S., J.I. Antonov, J. Wang, T.L. Delworth, K.W. Dixon, A.J. Broccoli, 2001: Anthropogenic warming of Earth’s climate system. Science, 292, 267-269.
  • Ramaswamy, V., M.-L. Chanin, J. Angell, J. Barnett, D. Gaffen, M. Gelman, P. Kekhut, Y. Koshelkov, K. Labitzke, J.-J. R. Lin, A. O’Neill, J. Nash, W. Randel, R. Rood, K. Shine, M. Shiotani, and R. Swinbank, 2001: Stratospheric temperature trends: Observations and model simulations. Rev. Geophys., 39, 71-122.
  • Ross, R.J., and W.P. Elliott, 2001: Radiosonde-based Northern Hemisphere tropospheric water vapor trends. J. Climate, 14, 1602-1612.
  • Ross, R.J., D.J. Gaffen, and J.Gille, 2001: Preface to Water Vapor in the Climate System special section. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 5197. Reprint
  • Seidel, D.J., R.J. Ross, J.K. Angell, and G.C. Reid, 2001: Climatological characteristics of the tropical tropopause as revealed by radiosondes. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 7857-7878. Reprint
  • Wang, J.X.L., and D.J. Gaffen, 2001: Late-twentieth-century climatology and trends of surface humidity and temperature in China. J. Climate, 14, 2833-2845. Reprint
  • Wang, J.X.L., and D.J. Gaffen, 2001: Trends in extremes of surface humidity, temperatures and summertime heat stress in China. Adv. Atmospheric Sciences, 18(5), 742-751.


  • Angell, J.K., 2000: Tropospheric temperature variations adjusted for El Nino, 1958-1998. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 11,841-11,849.
  • Angell, J.K., 2000: Difference in radiosonde temperature trend for the period 1979-1998 of MSU data and the period 1959-1998 twice as long. Geophys. Research Letters, 27, 2177-2180.
  • Elliott, W.P. and R.J. Ross, 2000: Estimated impacts of synoptic scheduling of radiosondes on climate records. J. Climate, 13, 2116-2120
  • Gaffen, D.J., R.J. Ross, and J. Gille 2000: Water vapor’s role in climate revisited at follow-up Chapman Conference. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 81, 158-165.
  • Gaffen, D.J., M.A. Sargent, R.E. Habermann, and J.R. Lanzante, 2000: Sensitivity of tropospheric and stratospheric temperature trends to radiosonde data quality. J. Climate, 13, 1776-1796. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., B.D. Santer, J.S. Boyle, J.R. Christy, N.E. Graham, and R.J. Ross, 2000: Multi- decadal changes in the vertical temperature structure of the tropical troposphere. Science, 287, 1239-1241. Reprint
  • Randel, W.J., F. Wu, and D.J. Gaffen, 2000: Interannual variability of the tropical tropopause derived from radiosonde data and NCEP reanalyses. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 15,509-15,524. Reprint
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, D.J. Gaffen, L. Bengtsson, C. Doutriaux, J.S. Boyle, M. Esch, J.J. Hnilo, P.D. Jones, G.A. Meehl, E. Roeckner, K.E. Taylor, and M. Wehner, 2000: Interpreting differential temperature trends at the surface and in the lower troposphere. Science, 287, 1227-1232. Reprint
  • Santer, B.D., T.M.L.Wigley, J.S. Boyle, D.J. Gaffen, J.J. Hnilo, D. Nychka, D.E. Parker and K.E. Taylor, 2000: Statistical significance of trend differences in layer-average temperature time series. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 7337-7356. Reprint


  • Angell, J.K., 1999: Variation with height and latitude of radiosonde temperature trends in North America, 1975-94. J. Climate, 12, 2551-2561.
  • Gaffen, D.J., and R.J. Ross, 1999: Climatology and trends of U.S. surface humidity and temperature. J. Climate, 12, 811-828. Reprint
  • Ross, R.J. and S. Rosenfeld, 1999: Correction to ‘Estimating mean weighted temperature of the atmosphere for Global Positioning System applications’J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27625.
  • Wang, J.X.L., and J.K. Angell, 1999: Air stagnation climatology for the United States(1948-1998). NOAA/Air Resources Laboratory ATLAS No. 1, Silver Spring, MD, 73 pp.


  • Angell, J.K., 1998: Contraction of the 300 mb north circumpolar vortex during 1963-97, and its movement into the eastern hemisphere. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 25, 887-25, 893.
  • Angell, J.K., 1998: Impact of El Chichon and Pinatubo on ozonesonde profiles in the north extratropicsGeophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4485-4488.
  • Elliott, W.P., R.J. Ross, and B. Schwartz, 1998: Effects on climate records of changes in National Weather Service humidity processing procedures. J. Climate, 11, 2424-2436.
  • Gaffen, D.J., 1998: Falling satellites, rising temperatures? Nature, 394, 615-616. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., D.B. Franklin, E.W. Friday, Jr., E. Gorre-Dale, H. Kootval, and K.E. Weston, 1998: The international participation of women in World Meteorological Organization activities and in the fields of meteorology and hydrology. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 861-864.
  • Gaffen, D.J., and R.J. Ross, 1998: Increased summertime heat stress in the United States. Nature, 396, 529-530. Reprint.abstractthis link opens in a new window
  • Ross, R.J., and D.J. Gaffen, 1998: Comment on “Widespread tropical atmospheric drying from 1979 to 1995” by Steven R. Schroeder and James P. McGuirk. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4357-4358. Reprint
  • Angell, J.K., 1997: Stratospheric warming due to Agung, El Chichon and Pinatubo taking into account the QBO. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 9479-9485.
  • Angell, J.K., 1997: Estimated impact of Agung, El Chichon and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions on global and regional total ozone after adjustment for the QBO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 647-650.
  • Elliott, W.P., and J.K. Angell, 1997: Variations of cloudiness, precipitable water, and relative humidity over the U.S.: 1973-1993. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 41-44.
  • Gaffen, D.J., R.D. Rosen, D.A. Salstein, and J.S. Boyle, 1997: Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor with simulations from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. J. Climate, 10, 1648-1661. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., E.W. Friday, K.E. Weston, and D.B. Franklin, 1997: The participation of women in meteorology and hydrology in the United States: The U.S. response to a World Meteorological Organization Questionnaire. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2241-2245.
  • Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Reudy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo., J. Logan, A. Luckett, M.P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, J. Zawodny, 1997: Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 25679-25720.
  • Ross, R.J., and S. Rosenfeld, 1997: Estimating mean weighted temperature of the atmosphere for GPS applications. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 21719-21730.


  • Angell, J.K., 1996: Temperatures after volcanic eruptions. In G. Fiocco, D. Fua, and G.Visconti eds. The Mt. Pinatubo Eruption Effects on the Atmosphere and Climate, NATO Series: Global Environmental Change Vol.42 Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 83-93.
  • Elliott, W. P., 1996: Atmospheric Structure, in S. Schneider, Editor, Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, 67-70. Oxford University Press, 929 pp.
  • Gaffen, D.J. 1996: A Digitized Metadata Set of Global Upper-Air Station Histories. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL ARL-211 , NOAA Air Resources Lab. Silver Spring, MD, 38 pp.
  • Gaffen, D. J., 1996: Humidity, in S. Schneider, Editor, Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, 404-407. Oxford University Press, 929 pp.
  • Ross, R.J., and W.P. Elliott, 1996: Water vapor trends over North America: 1973-1993. J. Climate, 9, 3561-3574. Reprint
  • Ross, R.J., J. Otterman, D. Starr, W. Elliott, J. Angell, and J. Susskind, 1996: Regional trends of surface and tropospheric temperature and evening-morning temperature difference in northern latitudes: 1973-93. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 3179-3182.
  • Ross, R.J., and W.P. Elliott, 1996: Tropospheric precipitable water: a radiosonde-based climatology. NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL ARL-219, 132 pp.
  • Elliott, W.P., and D.J. Gaffen, 1995: Chapman conference probes water vapor in the climate system. EOS, 76, 67.


  • Elliott, W.P., and D.J. Gaffen, 1995: Water vapor in the climate system. Earth and Space, 7, 5-7.
  • Elliott, W.P., 1995: On detecting long-term changes in atmospheric moisture. Climatic Change, 31, 349-367.Reprint


  • Elliott, W.P., D.J. Gaffen, J.D. Kahl and J.K. Angell, 1994: The effects of moisture on layer thicknesses used to monitor global temperatures. J. Climate, 7, 304-308. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., 1994: Temporal inhomogeneities in radiosonde temperature records. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3667-3676. Reprint


  • Angell, J.K., 1993: Comparison of stratospheric warming following Agung, El Chichon, and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions.Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 715-718.
  • Angell, J.K., 1993: Reexamination of the relations between depth of the Antarctic ozone hole, and equatorial QBO and SST, 1962-1992. Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 1559- 1562.
  • Elliott, W.P., and D.J. Gaffen, 1993: Effects of conversion algorithms on reported upper-air dewpoint depressions. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 1323-1325. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., and W.P. Elliott, 1993: Column water vapor content in clear and cloudy skies. J. Climate, 6, 2278-2287. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., 1993: Historical changes in radiosonde instruments and practices, Instruments and Observing Methods, Report 50, WMO/TD-541, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 123 pp.


  • Angell, J.K., 1992: Relation between 300-mb north polar vortex and equatorial SST, QBO, and sunspot number and the record contraction of the vortex in 1988-89. J. Climate, 5, 22-29.
  • Angell, J.K., 1992: Evidence of a relation between El Niño and QBO and for an El Niño in 1991-92. Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 285-288.
  • Gaffen, D.J., 1992: Observed annual and interannual variations in tropospheric water vapor, NOAA Tech. Memo. ERL ARL-198, NOAA Air Resources Lab., Silver Spring, MD, 162 pp.
  • Gaffen, D.J., and T.P. Barnett, 1992: A comparison of observations and model simulation of tropospheric water vapor, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2775-2780. Abstract
  • Gaffen, D.J., W.P. Elliott and A. Robock, 1992: Relationships between tropospheric water vapor and surface temperature as observed by radiosondes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, 1839-1842. Reprint
  • Gaffen, D.J., A. Robock and W.P. Elliott, 1992: Annual cycles of tropospheric water vapor, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 18,185-18,193.Abstract


  • Angell, J.K., 1991: Changes in tropospheric and stratospheric global temperatures, 1958-88. In M. E. Schlessinger (ed), Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations, 231-247.
  • Angell, J.K., 1991: Stratospheric temperature change as a function of height and sunspot number during 1972-89 based on rocketsonde and radiosonde data. J. Climate, 4, 1170-1180.
  • Elliott, W.P., J.K. Angell, and K.W. Thoning, 1991: Relation of atmospheric CO2 to tropical sea and air temperatures and precipitation. Tellus, 43B, 144-155.
  • Elliott, W.P., and D.J. Gaffen, 1991: On the utility of radiosonde humidity archives for climate studies. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72, 1507-1520. Reprint
  • Elliott, W.P., M.S. Smith, and J.K. Angell, 1991: Monitoring tropospheric water vapor changes using radiosonde data. In M. E. Schlessinger (ed), Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations, 311-328, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 615 pp.
  • Gaffen D.J., T.P. Barnett, and W.P. Elliott, 1991: Space and time scales of global tropospheric moisture. J. Climate, 4, 989-1008.Reprint